Uveitis

Uveitis is the inflammation of the middle layer of the eyeball, the uvea. This inflammation can affect the iris, ciliary body or choroid.

For uveitis treatment there are different methods, among them we find the drops with anti-inflammatory or cortisone until surgery. The choice of treatment depend on the location of the inflammation and uveitis development status.

Uveitis

Uveitis is the inflammation of the middle layer of the eyeball, the uvea. This inflammation can affect the iris, ciliary body or choroid.

For uveitis treatment there are different methods, among them we find the drops with anti-inflammatory or cortisone until surgery. The choice of treatment depend on the location of the inflammation and uveitis development status.

What is uveitis?

The term uveitis is defined as the inflammation of the uvea, middle layer of the eye located between the sclera and the retina. Over time, this term has evolved to describe the inflammatory processes of the different chambers of the eye. That is why it has been redefined to inflammations that affect:

  • La anterior chamberanterior uveitis
  • La vitreous chamber: intermediate uveitis
  • La retina and / or choroid: posterior uveitis

The uveitis is often referred to as a uncommon disease but the truth is that, within the full spectrum of the disease, its real prevalence is underdiagnosed.

It is important to mention that uveitis can behave as a mild and self-limited acute eye inflammation, without risking vision; even serious uveitic processes that, if misdiagnosed or poorly treated, can lead to permanent blindness or can be an initial symptom of life-threatening diseases.

Given this picture it is essential to go to an ophthalmologist quickly, because timely treatment is key to ensure that vision is not compromised.

Causes of Uveitis

In some cases it is not possible to relate the inflammation of the uvea with any specific cause, however there are preexisting conditions that can increase the chances of developing this pathology.

Some of the known causes of uveitis are:

  • Eye inflammation or injury that can derive in this condition.
  • Having suffered from viruses like the mumps, the herpes simplex or Herpes zoster.
  • Rheumatologic diseases such as spondyloarthropathies, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, lupus, etc.
  • Manifest autoimmune disorders such as sarcoidosis, behcet or ulcerative colitis.
  • Present infections such as tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, syphilis or AIDS.
  • Presence of a fungus, as in the case of histoplasmosis.
uveitis

Type

The types of uveitis They are determined depending on the area of ​​the eye in which the inflammation of the uvea has occurred.

The main types of inflammation of the uvea are: 

  • Iritis: Also known as anterior uveitis, this inflammation affects only the iris, occurring mostly in young or middle-aged people with no history of pre-existing diseases. It is the most common type.
  • Posterior uveitis: occurs when the inflammation is in the back of the eye, mainly affecting the choroid. It tends to develop slowly and be related to autoimmune diseases or generalized infections.
  • Intermediate uveitis: affects the pars plana or narrow part of the eye, so it is also known as pars planitis. It is more common in healthy young men, although it has also occurred in patients with conditions such as multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
  • PanuveitisIt is the most serious inflammation of the uvea, because it affects all parts of the eye. It is usually associated with the presence of general diseases, due to its importance it requires immediate attention. 

Symptoms of uveitis

This condition can appear suddenly affecting one or both eyes. Symptoms of uveitis include:

  • Mayor sensitivity to light (photophobia).
  • Blurred vision or distorted
  • Pain and redness of the eye.
  • Myodesopsias or perception of flying flies.

Uveitis can appear suddenly with redness and pain or it can be progressive, slow-moving, initially with little pain or redness and progressive loss of vision.

Diagnosis

A thorough examination of the eye is extremely important when the symptoms described above occur. The inflammation inside the eye can irreversibly affect the ocular tissues and over time cause blindness.

The ophthalmologist has a series of instruments to examine the inside of the eye to establish a basic diagnosis. In some circumstances, blood tests, skin tests and radiological exams will be required. In more specific cases, it will be necessary to pose a biopsy puncture of the inside of the eye to look for cells or other elements that help the diagnosis.

As uveitis can be associated with diseases of the rest of the organism, an evaluation and understanding of the general health of the patient is important. This means that the ophthalmologist will have to work together with other specialists.

Treatment of uveitis

Early treatment is necessary to reduce the loss of vision, so before the symptoms described above, it is essential to visit an ophthalmologist urgently.

The drops, Especially steroids and mydriatics are the drugs of choice to reduce inflammation and pain. For posterior uveitis, oral medication, or intravitreal injections may be necessary.

Uveitis that originates in the anterior and middle part of the eye usually have a rapid onset and lasts from 6 to 8 weeks. In the first stages can be controlled with the use of appropriate drops, without the need to resort to more complicated therapies. Often, this type of uveitis is not due to a specific cause, but to multiple factors. Posterior uveitis usually has a slow onset, but evolution is usually longer and more difficult to treat.

uveitis treatment

Although rare, inflammation of the uvea can also lead to complications such as retinal detachment, glaucomathe cataracts or the formation of new abnormal blood vessels. In these cases a surgical intervention and vitrectomy It can help resolve problems arising from associated complications. These pathologies will require the attention of an ophthalmologist to avoid vision loss.

Who can treat uveitis?

Only an ophthalmologist is qualified to treat uveitis. This is a serious illness that can irreversibly affect vision, causing blindness. A case of simple red eye can in fact be a serious problem of uveitis. A reddened eye that does not improve quickly should be evaluated and treated by an ophthalmologist, having to go to the specialist even as a matter of urgency to rule out major complications.

Your Order
Uveitis
Article name
Uveitis
Description
Uveitis is a serious condition that can cause loss of vision, so recognizing its symptoms is very important. Get information here.
Composer
Name of the editor
Área Oftalmológica Avanzada
Editor's logo