La myopia is a refractive defect that occurs when the light that enters the eye is projected in front of the retina and not on it, causing blurred vision of distant objects.

This condition is also known as short vision and it is not considered an ophthalmological disease, but a vision failure 

Fortunately, myopia can be corrected so much in a temporary like final.


La myopia is a refractive defect that occurs when the light that enters the eye is projected in front of the retina and not on it, causing blurred vision of distant objects.

Myopia is also known as short vision and it is not considered an ophthalmological disease, but a vision failure 

Fortunately, myopia can be corrected so much in a temporary like final.

What is myopia?

Myopia is a refractive problem that it is produced when the light that enters the eye is not projected on the retina but in front of it, which causes blurred distance vision, that is, myopia.

Likewise, The farther the light is projected from the retina, the greater the myopia.. When light is reflected behind the retina we speak of farsightedness, and when it is projected at different points it receives the name of astigmatism, two refractive defects also quite common.

Myopia can occur for three main reasons:

  • El eye is longer of the normal.
  • La lens power is very high.
  • La cornea is more curved than normal.

Myopia has no gender preference, so affects men as well as women, however, those people with family background yes they are more prone to this visual defect.

A myopic eye is almost always a healthy eye but, although rare, it is possible that when myopia is very high it causes other eye problems, such as myopic macular degeneration.

Myopia is the most common refractive defect and to understand better what it is, it is essential to understand how the human eye works. The light enters the eye through the cornea (transparent membrane of the outside of the eye) up to the iris, the colorful part of the eye, which is responsible for making more or less light penetrate into the eye by opening or closing the pupil according to the needs of each moment. The lens they act as a kind of lens and is responsible for focusing the light that enters the eye to be reflected on the retina. That light that enters the retina is transmitted to the brain thanks to the optic nerve, making vision possible.

Myopia symptoms

The main symptom of myopia is the blurred vision from afar. Usually we notice when we find it difficult to recognize the faces of people who are far away, for example, on the other side of the sidewalk.

Others myopia symptoms are:

  • Blurred vision de far.
  • Sharp vision of the nearby objects.
  • Zoom in on objects to see them better.
  • Squinting to better see distant objects.
  • Blurred vision gets worse over time and many times it presents since childhood.
  • Nearsighted people often need change the graduation of your glasses frequently.
  • Myopia usually stop your progress from the Age 20.
  • The myopic children They usually occur difficulty reading the board at school.

Causes of myopia

  • Hereditary factor: children of myopic parents are more predisposed to suffer this refractive defect.
  • Eye defect: It occurs when a person is born with the cornea too curved or the eyeball too large with respect to its other components.
  • Related conditions: sometimes it occurs as a secondary cause of a primary disease, such as cataracts or type 2 diabetes.
  • Environmental factors: Because the number of myopic people in the world is currently very high, it is believed that there may be a relationship between excessive exposure to mobile screens, computers and televisions and the development of myopia. However, there are still no studies that substantiate this claim scientifically.

Types of myopia

This condition is divided into two groups according to the number of diopters:

  • Simple myopia: is the type attributed to those people who present up to 8 and 9 diopters of myopia. Often these people are diagnosed during childhood and progress stops at 20 years of age.
  • High myopia or magna: the high myopia people are diagnosed with more than 9 diopters and is usually associated with retinal degeneration processes or conditions related to vitreous humor. Those with this type of vision defect are more likely to develop glaucoma, Cataracts y retinal detachment.

myopia treatment

In order to treat myopia, the patient must go to the ophthalmologist and carry out a thorough examination. Once the number of diopters and type of myopia that the person presents, there are several methods to treat myopiaAmong them, the two most common treatment options are:

No surgery

  • use of glasses: It is a palliative treatment that is used to relieve symptoms, especially In children or in adults under 20, But does not correct the source of the problem. We recommend this option to patients whose prescription has not stabilized since, due to the evolution of myopia, there is the possibility of frequently changing the prescription of the spectacle lenses.
  • Use of contact lenses for daytime use: in the same way as glasses, do not offer to definitively correct myopiaHowever, they are a very suitable alternative to replace the use of glasses in sports, professional activities or for aesthetic reasons. Depending on the degree of myopia the use of daytime contact lenses offers a better visual perception than with glasses. The current materials and replacement systems offer great safety, even in childhood and allow the use of contact lenses to not have time constraints.
  • Use of contact lenses for night use (Ortho-K): These are special lenses that are worn at night (sleeping) and that mold the cornea safely, and allow you to avoid having to use optical compensation during the day. It is a suitable system for people who cannot wear contact lenses during the day, either for professional reasons or for discomfort related to daily use.
  • Use of contact lenses in permanent regime: in some cases the permanent use of contact lenses can be considered, between 6 and 30 nights in a row, as a visual alternative. It is also useful in cases that are pending refractive surgery or when there are arguments that advise against it.

With surgery

If the person wants stop wearing glasses or contact lenses la myopia operation is the only option for correct this condition permanently. However, not all myopic people are candidates for this operation, since among the requirements it is necessary to be over 18 years old and that graduation is stable for one year.

For definitively eliminate myopia we have the laser techniques (FemtoLasik, LASIK y PRK) o el implantation of an intraocular lens.

In all cases, during myopia surgery we can eliminate myopia, astigmatism and presbyopia in the same surgical act.


El FemtoLasik, Also known as 100% laser eye surgery, is a surgical technique very similar to Lasik's.

The difference between the two is that in FemtoLasik, the flap cut where the Excimer laser, it does also with laserplatforms, femtosecond, making the FemtoLasik technique the safest option that exists today to eliminate myopia.

This breakthrough makes the FemtoLasik to correct myopia be the option Safer, predictable And faster recovery of all that exist today.


El most widely used surgical method in the world to correct myopia is LASIK surgery.

In this outpatient procedure which takes place under topical anesthesia and consists of lift the surface layer of the cornea with a known instrument with the name of microkeratome. Once the cornea is exposed, the excimer laser over this to correct the defect in the curvature.

The exciter laser performance lasts less than 1 minute and after its application the layer that covers it is placed again. It is an intervention that does not need sutures and all surgery lasts less than 20 minutes.

The marketing process includesseveral phases that are reflected below: recuperación very simple y fast and the person can go home the same day as surgery.


The surgical technique PRK consists remove a part of the epithelium using an alcoholic substance.

Subsequently, we apply the Excimer laser to eliminate myopia. Once this step is done, we reposition the epithelium and put some protective lenses for external use that the person must use until the specialist indicates their withdrawal. We put these contact lenses to protect the eye from external agents during the postoperative period.

intraocular lens

In some cases, the patient you are not a candidate for laser eye surgery for reasons of high graduation or because he has one excessively thin cornea. In these cases, we have alternative methods to laser surgery to treat myopia.

Among them, the most common is the implant of ICL intraocular lenses or phakic lenses, which offer same results as laser surgery but without corneal ablation.

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Myopia occurs when a person can not correctly see objects that are at a distance because their vision becomes blurred.
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Área Oftalmológica Avanzada
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