El colorblindness o discromatopsia is a color vision disorder that prevents a person from correctly perceiving some colors. Patients who suffer from this condition often do not know that they are color blind, as they were born with this condition and do not know how they should see colors normally.
Not all dyschromatopsies are the same since the degree of affection of this disorder can vary according to the type of color blindness that the patient suffers, as well as the cause and severity of it. Tampoco all color blindness is congenital, since there are some diseases that can trigger this problem throughout life.
Many people are curious to know what color blind colors are, are you one of them? We invite you to discover it at Área Oftalmológica Avanzada.
What are color blind colors?
Color vision is possible thanks to retinal functioning. The retina is a light sensitive tissue that contains two types of photoreceptor cells, called rods and cones. The former are sensitive to the base colors: red, green and blue, and the latter are sensitive to white, black and gray.
There are, in turn, three different types of cone cells, and each of them is sensitive to a different color. Dyschromatopsia occurs when these cells are not working properly or are simply not in the retina. The most common form is red-green deficiency, which occurs when the patient does not have cone cells sensitive to these colors.
It can also happen, but less frequently, that a patient does not have cone cells sensitive to the color blue and it is difficult to differentiate the ranges of this color. Likewise, when a patient does not have any type of cone cells, they are considered to be suffering from achromatopsia or black and white vision.
What colors do colorblind confuse?
Most of the time, the colors that colorblind people confuse are red and green. However, it is important to note that these patients do not have an inability to see these colors, but rather inability to distinguish the different ranges of the same.
As we mentioned earlier, red-green deficiency is the most common type of color blindness in the world population. This occurs when red and green sensitive cone cells do not function properly, are rare or simply do not exist in the retina.
There are two types of red-green deficiency. Difficulty in correctly differentiating red tones is called protanopia and the difficulty to differentiate the green colors is called deuteranopia or deuteranomaly.
When a person is deficient in the color red or green ranges of these shades look more opaque or mattes compared to how a person with normal color vision sees them.
People with red-green deficiency often have difficulty differentiating the following color combinations: red and green, blue and purple, pink and gray, especially when they are in dimly lit spaces.
Reduced color perception
The reduced perception of color is caused by the type of color blindness more common: anomalous trichromacia. In this case, the retina contains all the types of cone cells necessary for color vision, but their sensitivity is very limited.
La vision of color blind people with abnormal trichomacia is less severe and, for this reason, the patient tends to confuse some colors with others. A common complication of this condition is that it may take a little longer for people with it to identify the red hue of traffic lights than a person with normal color vision.
How Genetics Influence Red-Green Color Blindness
Almost always the way hereditary of red-green deficiency is caused by a X-linked recessive gene. To understand this, we must explain that mothers have one pair of XX chromosomes that contains genetic information, and fathers have another pair of chromosomes, but XY.
Both mother and father contribute their chromosomes to the formation of the baby's sex. If an X chromosome pairs with an X chromosome, the sex of the baby will be female. And if an X chromosome is paired with a Y, the sex will be male.
However, in patients with color blindness caused by a recessive gene linked to an X chromosome, the mother is the carrier of the gene or suffers from this condition. Likewise, parents with red-green deficiency pass the X chromosome to their daughters, but not to their sons. And a daughter who receives the gene from her father will only be a carrier, unless her mother also has it. Therefore, if the daughter inherits the gene from both parents, she will be both a carrier and color blind.
When the mother passes the gene to her child, he will be both a carrier and color blind. For this reason, although there are color blind women, there are more color blind men in the world than women with red-green deficiency. Genetics undoubtedly play a very important role in the transmission of color blindness.
Are there glasses for the color blind?
There are a good number of patients who make use of this supplement to improve their color perception. This tool is very useful to improve the vision of people with color blindness and works through filter lenses, which are available for both glasses and contact lenses.
Many people with color blindness have asked family members to organize their clothing by matching shades. This is helpful in grouping a pattern of similar tones in the mind. They also exist today mobile apps that offer color blind help to differentiate colors.
En Área Oftalmológica Avanzada we are experts in diagnosis of color blindness. Contact us if you have color vision problems or need an eye checkup. We are delighted to assist you.